Hetzner - DokuWiki

VMware ESXi/en
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== Hardware ==
 
== Hardware ==
  
*VMware vSphere Hypervisor (ESXi) uses a filesystem called vmfs5 (formerly vmfs3), which uses GPT and supports drive sizes of up to 64 TiB (formerly 2 TiB).
+
*VMware vSphere Hypervisor 5.x (ESXi) uses a filesystem called vmfs5 (formerly vmfs3), which uses GPT and supports drive sizes of up to 64 TiB (formerly 2 TiB).
*Software RAID (as used in our regular dedicated servers) is not supported by ESXi.
+
*Software RAID is not supported by ESXi.
 
*The free version of ESXi supports a maximum of 32GB RAM.
 
*The free version of ESXi supports a maximum of 32GB RAM.
  
 
== Network configuration ==
 
== Network configuration ==
  
*VMware vSphere Hypervisor is an "operating system" designed for pure virtualization and supports neither NAT nor routing. Therefore only a true bridged setup can be used.
+
*VMware vSphere Hypervisor is an "operating system" designed for pure virtualization and supports neither NAT nor routing. Therefore, only a true bridged setup can be used.
 
*To use a subnet an additional IP needs to be setup as a router VM.
 
*To use a subnet an additional IP needs to be setup as a router VM.
*For connectivity between multiple ESXi servers within the same subnet, host routes via gateway are necessary due to network security restrictions.
 
 
host A
 
esxcfg-route -a <ip address host B> 255.255.255.255 <gateway ip>
 
 
host B
 
esxcfg-route -a <ip address host A> 255.255.255.255 <gateway ip>
 
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
  
*The installation AND basic configuration of ESXi with the install disc takes about 20-30 minutes, even without any prior knowledge. ([[#Installation_guide|Install guide]])
+
*The installation AND configuration of ESXi with the installation CD takes about 20-30 minutes, even without any prior knowledge. ([[#Installation_guide|Installation guide]])
  
 
== License ==
 
== License ==
  
 
*After installation the system has a test license, which expires after 60 days.
 
*After installation the system has a test license, which expires after 60 days.
*For the long-term usage of the OS a separate (free) license is required. This can be requested by [https://my.vmware.com/web/vmware/evalcenter?p=free-esxi5 registering on the VMware website]
+
*For the long-term usage of the OS a separate (free) license is required. This can be requested by [https://my.vmware.com/web/vmware/evalcenter?p=free-esxi5 registering on the VMware website]
 
*The license can be entered via the vSphere Client, under the tab "Configuration", the section "Software" and then under the menu item "Licensed functions". After selecting this you can click on the "Edit" button to the right and then enter the license key.
 
*The license can be entered via the vSphere Client, under the tab "Configuration", the section "Software" and then under the menu item "Licensed functions". After selecting this you can click on the "Edit" button to the right and then enter the license key.
  
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*The EQ and EX servers, aside from the EX10, are compatible with ESXi 5. However, the hardware is not certified by VMware. An installation on the EX10 is '''not''' possible, due to the 32GB RAM limitation of the free version and the unsupported onboard NIC.
 
*The EQ and EX servers, aside from the EX10, are compatible with ESXi 5. However, the hardware is not certified by VMware. An installation on the EX10 is '''not''' possible, due to the 32GB RAM limitation of the free version and the unsupported onboard NIC.
 
*Installing ESXi on the older DS or X servers is '''not''' possible.
 
*Installing ESXi on the older DS or X servers is '''not''' possible.
*When ordering your dedicated server, please state in the comments section at the end of the order form that you want ESXi on it. Hetzner Support will then provide you with a CD and a remote console (LARA), through which you can install ESXi. This installation costs 25 Euros. In some cases our support will pre-install ESXi.
+
*When ordering a dedicated server, please state in the comments section at the end of the order form that you want ESXi on it. Hetzner Support will then provide you with a CD and a remote console (LARA), through which you can install ESXi. This installation costs 25 Euros. In some cases our support will pre-install ESXi.
*When installing on a server with multiple identical drives, ESXi can potentially show the drives in a different order than the BIOS does. Should the screen be blank with only a blinking cursor after the installation is done and you restart, you should try the other drive as the boot drive.
+
*When installing on a server with multiple identical drives, ESXi can potentially show the drives in a different order than the BIOS does. Should the screen be blank with only a blinking cursor after the installation is done and you restart, try booting from the other drive.
 +
 
 +
== Network Configuration ==
 +
 
 +
*For connectivity between multiple ESXi servers within the same subnet, host routes via gateway are necessary due to network security restrictions.
 +
 
 +
host A
 +
esxcfg-route -a <IP Host B> 255.255.255.255 <Gateway IP>
 +
 
 +
host B
 +
esxcfg-route -a <IP Host A> 255.255.255.255 <Gateway IP>
  
 
== Single IP addresses ==
 
== Single IP addresses ==
  
*IP addresses are statically mapped to the MAC address of the host. Thus it is necessary to request a special MAC address for the additional IP address because only bridge mode is possible. These MAC addresses can then be configured for the virtual servers. To get these MAC addresses assigned, log in to Robot, choose "Server" from the menu on the left, select the desired server, and then click on the "IPs" tab. Here you can click on the icon next to the single IP address to get a MAC address.
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*IP addresses are, by default, statically mapped to the MAC address of the host. It is possible however to get separate MAC addresses for the additional single IPs via Robot. These can then be configured for the virtual machines. To get these MAC addresses assigned, log in to Robot, choose "Server" from the menu on the left, select the desired server, and then click on the "IPs" tab. Here you can click on the icon next to the single IP address to get a MAC address.
  
[[Datei:Esxi-mac-setzen.png]]
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[[File:Esxi-mac-setzen.png]]
  
 
== Subnets ==
 
== Subnets ==
  
*Before ordering an additional subnet, you need at least one additional IP for a Router VM since ESXI cannot route itself. When ordering a subnet please make a note that you are using ESXi and ask to have the subnet routed to the additional IP address. You do NOT get a separate MAC address for every IP address of the subnet.
+
*To use a subnet (IPv4 as well as IPv6) in ESXi, at least one additional single IP is required as a router VM, since ESXi itself cannot route. When ordering a subnet, please make sure to note that it is required for ESXi and should be routed on the additional single IP.
 +
 
 +
'''IMPORTANT''' Since IPv6 subnets are routed to link-local addresses (MAC-based), it is only possible to use IPv6 in a limited way (ie. in a single VM).
 +
 
 +
=== IPv4 ===
  
 
The confirmation email of the subnets contains (for example) the following information:
 
The confirmation email of the subnets contains (for example) the following information:
  
  Below you will find your additional IP addresses added to
+
  Below you will find the IP subnet added to your server 192.168.13.156.
the server 192.168.13.156.<br>
+
   
  Please note that you can use the subnet only for this server.<br>
+
  Subnet: 192.168.182.16 /28
  IP: 192.168.182.16 /28
+
 
  Mask: 255.255.255.240
 
  Mask: 255.255.255.240
  Broadcast: 192.168.182.31<br>
+
  Broadcast: 192.168.182.31
  Useable IP addresses:
+
   
  192.168.182.17 70 192.168.182.30
+
Usable IP addresses:
 +
  192.168.182.17 to 192.168.182.30
 +
 
 +
You do NOT get a separate MAC for each IP from a subnet.
 +
 
 +
=== IPv6 ===
 +
 
 +
After ordering the IPv6 subnet you should receive an email after a short while with the following details:
 +
 
 +
Below you will find the IPv6 subnet added to your server #12345.
 +
 +
Subnet: 2a01:4f8:61:20e1::1 /64
 +
Gateway: fe80::1
 +
 +
Usable IP addresses:
 +
2a01:4f8:61:20e1::2 to 2a01:4f8:61:20e1:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff
 +
 
 +
The IPv6 subnet is routed to the default link-local address (which is derived from the MAC address) of the main IP. Via [[Robot/en|Robot]] the routing of the IPv6 subnet can be switched to the link-local address of the virtual MAC (in other words, the additional single IP). This can be done in [[Robot/en|Robot]], using the same symbol which is found next to additional single IPs to request virtual MAC addresses. The host system, so the ESXi itself, receives no IPv6 address. This is neither necessary nor possible because ESXi can not work with a fe80::1 gateway.
 +
 
  
 
In order to use these IP addresses in virtual machines, a "router VM" supplemented by an additional NIC from the new subnet is necessary. The subnet itself requires a new vSwitch in ESXi to which all VMs in the subnet will be connected.
 
In order to use these IP addresses in virtual machines, a "router VM" supplemented by an additional NIC from the new subnet is necessary. The subnet itself requires a new vSwitch in ESXi to which all VMs in the subnet will be connected.
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'''NOTE'''
 
'''NOTE'''
  
The network card type for the router VM should not be VMXNET2 or VMXNET3, as otherwise the TCP performance can be very bad.
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The network card type for the router VM should not be VMXNET2 or VMXNET3, as otherwise the TCP performance can be very bad. As a workaround LRO in the VM can be disabled via 'disable_lro=1'. More information on this bug can be found here: [http://www.vmware.com/support/vsphere4/doc/vsp_esxi41_vc41_rel_notes.html http://www.vmware.com/support/vsphere4/doc/vsp_esxi41_vc41_rel_notes.html]
As a workaround LRO in the VM can be disabled via 'disable_lro=1'. More information on this bug can be found here:
+
http://www.vmware.com/support/vsphere4/doc/vsp_esxi41_vc41_rel_notes.html
+
  
After upgrading the ESXi host to 4.1 and upgrading VMs to VMwareTools to 4.1, you may experience slow TCP performance on VMs running on the 4.1 ESXi host. You can address this situation by disabling Large Receive Offload (LRO) on the ESXi host.
+
After an upgrade to VMware ESXi 5 this issue may appear again. You can address this issue by disabling Large Receive Offload (LRO) on the ESXi host:
  
* Log into the ESXi host with vSphere Client.
+
*Log into the ESXi host with the vSphere Client.
* Select the host > Configuration > Software:Advanced Settings.
+
*Select the host -> Configuration -> Software:Advanced Settings.
* Select Net and scroll down slightly more than half way.
+
*Select Net and scroll down slightly more than half way.
* Set the following parameters from 1 to 0:
+
*Set the following parameters from 1 to 0:
  
 
  Net.VmxnetSwLROSL
 
  Net.VmxnetSwLROSL
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=== Preparations in the vSphere client ===
 
=== Preparations in the vSphere client ===
  
1. Create a vSwitch (in the example the name 'subnetz' is used)
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1. Create a vSwitch (in the example the name "subnetz" is used)
  
[[Datei:Esxi-vswitch1.png|vSwitch-Teil 1]]<br><br>
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[[File:Esxi-vswitch1.png|vSwitch part 1]]<br/><br/>[[File:Esxi-vswitch2.png|vSwitch Part 2]]<br/><br/>[[File:Esxi-vswitch3.png|vSwitch Part 3]]<br/><br/>[[File:Esxi-vswitch4.png|vSwitch Part 4]]<br/>
[[Datei:Esxi-vswitch2.png|vSwitch-Teil 2]]<br><br>
+
[[Datei:Esxi-vswitch3.png|vSwitch-Teil 3]]<br><br>
+
[[Datei:Esxi-vswitch4.png|vSwitch-Teil 4]]<br><br>
+
  
2. Add a second NIC to the router VM. Connected network: subnetz (the previously created vSwitch)<br><br>
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2. Add a second NIC to the router VM. Connected network: subnetz (the previously created vSwitch)<br/><br/>[[File:Esxi-router-nic.png]]
[[Datei:Esxi-router-nic.png]]<br><br>
+
  
 
3. The NIC of the virtual machine in the subnet. Connected network: subnetz
 
3. The NIC of the virtual machine in the subnet. Connected network: subnetz
  
The networking overview should show the following:[[Datei:Esxi-subnet.png]]
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The networking overview should show the following:
 +
 
 +
[[File:Esxi-subnet.png]]
 +
 
 +
=== Configuration of the Router VM ===
  
 
*Example of /etc/network/interfaces on the router VM
 
*Example of /etc/network/interfaces on the router VM
 +
 
  # The loopback network interface
 
  # The loopback network interface
 
  auto lo
 
  auto lo
 
  iface lo inet loopback
 
  iface lo inet loopback
 
  # The primary network interface
 
  # The primary network interface
  # WAN-NIC in VMnetwork
+
  # WAN-NIC im VMnetwork
 
  auto eth0
 
  auto eth0
 
  iface eth0 inet dhcp
 
  iface eth0 inet dhcp
 +
# for the IPv6 subnet the configuration is analog to other virtualisations
 +
iface eth0 inet6 static
 +
    address 2a01:4f8:61:20e1::2
 +
    netmask 128
 +
    gateway fe80::1
 
  # LAN NIC in Subnet
 
  # LAN NIC in Subnet
 
  auto eth1
 
  auto eth1
 
  iface eth1 inet static
 
  iface eth1 inet static
    address    192.168.182.30
+
    address    192.168.182.30
    broadcast  192.168.182.31
+
    broadcast  192.168.182.31
    netmask    255.255.255.240
+
    netmask    255.255.255.240
 +
# The prefix/netmask can/must be changed according to the amount of network
 +
# segments
 +
iface eth1 inet6 static
 +
    address    2a01:4f8:61:20e1::2
 +
    netmask    64
  
 
*Example of /etc/network/interfaces of a Linux VM in the subnet
 
*Example of /etc/network/interfaces of a Linux VM in the subnet
 +
 
  # The loopback network interface
 
  # The loopback network interface
 
  auto lo
 
  auto lo
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  auto eth0
 
  auto eth0
 
  iface eth0 inet static
 
  iface eth0 inet static
    address 192.168.182.17
+
    address 192.168.182.17
    netmask 255.255.255.240
+
    netmask 255.255.255.240
    broadcast 192.168.182.31
+
    broadcast 192.168.182.31
    gateway 192.168.182.30
+
    gateway 192.168.182.30
  
 
The router VM is now connected to both networks and can be used as a gateway for virtual machines in the subnet. Don't forget to activate IP forwarding in the kernel:
 
The router VM is now connected to both networks and can be used as a gateway for virtual machines in the subnet. Don't forget to activate IP forwarding in the kernel:
  
 
  echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
 
  echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
 +
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding
  
 
To make this persistent across reboots, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf
 
To make this persistent across reboots, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf
  
 
  net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
 
  net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
 +
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1
  
The virtual machines should now be accessible from the Internet over the assigned IP.
+
The virtual machines should now be accessible (via SSH for example) via their assigned IPs.
  
 
= Installation guide =
 
= Installation guide =
  
 
*During the order choose the desired server (the EX10 is not supported by the free version). A RAID controller can be optionally added if desired (requires the Flexi-Pack) and is supported during the installation.
 
*During the order choose the desired server (the EX10 is not supported by the free version). A RAID controller can be optionally added if desired (requires the Flexi-Pack) and is supported during the installation.
 
 
*At the end of the order form there is a comments section where you can make a note that you want to install ESXi and that our technicians should set the server up with a LARA (remote console) and an installation CD of ESXi.
 
*At the end of the order form there is a comments section where you can make a note that you want to install ESXi and that our technicians should set the server up with a LARA (remote console) and an installation CD of ESXi.
 +
*Once the server is ready you will receive an email from Hetzner with the details of the server as well as the access details for the LARA. In some cases our technicians will pre-install ESXi for you.
 +
*Login to the LARA console and finish the installation (approx. 5 minutes).
  
*Once the server is ready you will receive an email from Hetzner with the details of the server as well as the access details for the LARA.
 
 
*Login to the LARA console and finish the installation (approx. 5 minutes).
 
 
Afterwards, the following screen should be displayed:
 
Afterwards, the following screen should be displayed:
  
[[Datei:Esxi-installed.png]]
+
[[File:Esxi-installed.png|400px|ESXi installed]]
 
+
*After a reboot, set a password using the LARA console (mind the drive order!). This is the root password for SSH (if you enable it) as well as the password for the VMware vSphere Client (requires Windows). This can then be downloaded via a browser.
+
  
[[Datei:Esxi-password.png]]
+
*After a reboot login using the password that you entered during the installation. This is the root password for SSH as well as the password for the VMware vSphere Client (requires Windows). This can then be downloaded separately via a browser.
  
[[Datei:Esxi-vsphere.png]]
+
[[File:Esxi-vsphere.png]]
  
 
*After successful installation you can order up to three additional single IP addresses via Robot. You can get a MAC address for your additional single IP through Robot under the "IPs" tab. You will see a small button next to the IP address. Clicking on that button will give the IP address a virtual MAC.
 
*After successful installation you can order up to three additional single IP addresses via Robot. You can get a MAC address for your additional single IP through Robot under the "IPs" tab. You will see a small button next to the IP address. Clicking on that button will give the IP address a virtual MAC.
 
 
*Configure the MAC addresses of the virtual servers with the corresponding IP addresses through vSphere. Once this is done even DHCP will work via the Hetzner network!
 
*Configure the MAC addresses of the virtual servers with the corresponding IP addresses through vSphere. Once this is done even DHCP will work via the Hetzner network!
  
 
For additional information regarding ESXi and its usage, please refer to the [http://www.vmware.com/products/esxi/ official website]
 
For additional information regarding ESXi and its usage, please refer to the [http://www.vmware.com/products/esxi/ official website]
  
== Manual installation of updates (4.0 to 4.1) ==
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== Manual installation of updates ==
  
The normal way to install updates is via the Host Update Utility. Because uploading an update of hundreds of megabytes with a DSL connection takes very long, the following is a guide on how to manually install updates on the system. This guide comes with absolutely no warranty for correctness or usability! Use it at your own risk.
+
The installation of updates in the free version can only be done via the console or via VMware Go. An update can be several hundred megabytes, which can take a long time with a standard DSL connection, which is why the following guide can help. This is done at your own risk. There is no warranty or guarantee for correctness!
  
Prerequisite is SSH activated access and wget.
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Prequisite is SSH activated access and that the system is in maintenance mode. This can be activated via:
  
First you need to download the patch from [http://support.vmware.com/selfsupport/download/ VMware self support site]. Choose ESXi and search. The major upgrade from 4.0 to 4.1 can be found on the regular [http://www.vmware.com/go/esxi ESXi download site] or already repacked to tar.gz from [http://download.hetzner.de/tools/vmware/upgrade-from-ESXi4.0-to-4.1.0-0.0.260247-release.tar.gz download.hetzner.de] (no warranty, use at your own risk)
+
vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter
  
Since the files are compressed with zip, which does not exist on ESXi, the updates have to be repacked with tar. So using either a Linux vm or another server unzip the downloaded files and compress them again using tar and gzip. The tar.gz is then transferred to the ESXi host using either wget (requires webserver) or rsync.
+
=== Updating VSphere 5.0 to 5.1 ===
  
The archive can then be extracted in a directory of your choice:
+
First of all the VMware-ESXi-5.1.0-799733-depot.zip update needs to be downloaded from the [http://www.vmware.com/patchmgr/download.portal VMWare Updates Page], or, used at your own risk and without warranty or liability, from the [http://download.hetzner.de/tools/vmware/ Hetzner Download Page] and saved on the ESXi Host.
  
/vmfs/volumes/4a42186d-2d171bfc-6d01-001b213b649f/updates/ESXi400-201003001 # ls -all
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Once all the VMs have been shut down and the system has entered the maintenance mode via "vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter", the update can be installed in two ways. The following command refreshes the system and removes all the packages that are not included in the update. This is equivalent to a new installation.
drwxr-xr-x    1 root    root                560 Apr  6 18:29 .
+
drwxr-xr-x    1 root    root                560 Apr  6 18:27 ..
+
drwxr-xr-x    1 root    root                420 Apr  6 18:29 embeddedEsx
+
-rw-r--r--    1 root    root              4946 Mar 24 15:25 metadata.zip
+
  
Example ESXi 4.1 Upgrade:
+
esxcli software profile install -d /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/VMware-ESXi-5.1.0-799733-depot.zip -p ESXi-5.1.0-799733-standard
  
/vmfs/volumes/4c4559de-9e2a8780-a90b-001b215f7a57/upgrade-40-to-41 # ls -l
+
Alternatively, only the packages containted in the update can be updated to their new versions, leaving all other packages intact.
-rw-r--r--    1 1000    1000              4934 May 19 00:30 metadata.zip
+
-r--r--r--    1 1000    1000              1507 May 19 00:29 upgrade_info.xml
+
-rw-r--r--    1 1000    1000            1351442 May 19 00:29 vmware- esx-esxupdate-esxi-4.1.0-0.0.260247.i386.vib
+
-rw-r--r--    1 1000    1000          89605022 May 19 00:29 vmware-esx-firmware-4.1.0-0.0.260247.i386.vib
+
-rw-r--r--    1 1000    1000          120626062 May 19 00:30 vmware-esx-tools-light-4.1.0-0.0.260247.i386.vib
+
  
After all guests have been shutdown, the maintenance mode must be activated
+
esxcli software profile update -d /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/VMware-ESXi-5.1.0-799733-depot.zip -p ESXi-5.1.0-799733-standard
  
../updates/ESXi400-201003001 # vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter
+
Finally, the system must be rebooted. When the VMs are turned on for the first time after the reboot, it is possible that a message appears noting that the VM was copied or moved. This happens because the UUIDs get changed during the update. You can safely select "VM was moved" in this situation. See also:
'vim.Task:haTask-ha-host-vim.HostSystem.enterMaintenanceMode-1852795269'
+
[http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1010675 VMware Help Page]
  
Now the update can be installed
+
=== Installation of Patches ===
  
../updates/ESXi400-201003001 # esxupdate update -m metadata.zip
+
After the patches have been transferred onto the system, they can be installed. It is important that the full path name is entered, eg.:
metadata.zip                                                  ############### [100%]
+
vmware-esx-firmware-4.0.0-1.12.244038.i386.vib                ############### [100%]
+
Unpacking deb_vmware-esx-firmware_4.0.0-1.12.244038.vib        ############### [100%]
+
Installing packages :deb_vmware-esx-firmware_4.0.0-1.12.244038 ############### [100%]
+
The update completed successfully, but the system needs to be rebooted for the changes to be effective.
+
/vmfs/volumes/4a42186d-2d171bfc-6d01-001b213b649f/updates/ESXi400-201003001 #
+
  
 +
esxcli software vib install --depot="/vmfs/volumes/datastore1/patches/ESXi510-201210001.zip"
 +
Installation Result
 +
  Message: The update completed successfully, but the system needs to be rebooted for the changes to be effective.
 +
  Reboot Required: true
 +
  [...]
  
After a reboot, the update is complete. This reduces the downtime of your ESXi to about 5 minutes.
+
After a reboot the maintenance mode needs to be exited:
  
This guide was first posted by Tischi in the [http://forum.hetzner.de/wbb2/thread.php?threadid=14372 Hetzner Forum]
+
vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_exit
  
 
== Monitoring RAID controller ==
 
== Monitoring RAID controller ==
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For the 3ware controller there exists both a CIM Provider as well as a CLI. The 64-bit CLI for Linux can be used from version 9.5.2 onwards.
 
For the 3ware controller there exists both a CIM Provider as well as a CLI. The 64-bit CLI for Linux can be used from version 9.5.2 onwards.
  
''Note'': 3ware controllers are no longer supported by ESXi 5.0.
+
''Note'': 3ware controllers are only supported by ESXi 5.0 via an external driver.
 
+
For adaptec controllers the CIM Provider and the CLI (arcconf) must be manually installed. Required is an up-to-date version of the driver.
+
An installation guide can be found on the
+
[http://download.adaptec.com/pdfs/installation_guides/vmware_esxi_41_cim_remotearcconf_installation_guide_3_2011.pdf Adaptec site]
+
 
+
 
+
*RAID driver (version 28000) [http://www.adaptec.com/en-us/speed/raid/aac/linux/aacraid_vmware_esx_esxi_drivers_1_1_7-28000_tgz.htm download]
+
*Query the current driver version:
+
 
+
# esxupdate query --vib-view | grep -i aacraid
+
 
+
*Install the new driver. Keep in mind that .vib is used for ESXi
+
 
+
# cp vmware-esxi-drivers-scsi-aacraid-400.4.1.7.28000-1.0.4.260247.x86_64.vib /tmp
+
# cd /tmp
+
# esxupdate -b vmware-esxi-drivers-scsi-aacraid-400.4.1.7.28000-1.0.4.260247.x86_64.vib --nodeps --maintenancemode --nosigcheck update
+
# reboot
+
 
+
*Download of the [http://www.adaptec.com/en-us/speed/raid/storage_manager/cim_vmware_v7_00_18781_zip.htm Adaptec CIM Provider]
+
*Installation of the Provider on VMWare ESXi 4.1
+
  
# cp arcconf-18781.zip /tmp
+
For Adaptec controllers the CIM Provider and the CLI (arcconf) must be manually installed. Required is an up-to-date version of the driver. An installation guide can be found on the [http://download.adaptec.com/pdfs/installation_guides/vmware_esxi_41_cim_remotearcconf_installation_guide_3_2011.pdf Adaptec site] (PDF)
# cd /tmp
+
# esxupdate --bundle=arcconf-18781.zip --nodeps --nosigcheck --maintenancemode update
+
# reboot
+
  
# esxupdate query
+
*RAID driver [https://my.vmware.com/web/vmware/details?downloadGroup=DT-ESXi50-PMC-Sierra-aacraid-52129800&productId=229 Version 5.2.1.29800]
 +
*[http://www.adaptec.com/en-us/speed/raid/storage_manager/asm_linux_x64_v7_30_18837_tgz.htm Remote Arcconf]
 +
*[http://www.adaptec.com/en-us/speed/raid/storage_manager/cim_vmware_v7_31_18856_zip.htm Adaptec CIM Providers]
  
Monitoring can be achieved through the installation of remote ARCCONF via a Windows system
+
Monitoring can be achieved through the installation of remote ARCCONF via a Windows/Linux system.
  
 
  $ arcconf GETCONFIG 1 AD
 
  $ arcconf GETCONFIG 1 AD
Zeile 248: Zeile 248:
 
== Parallel operation of onboard controller/hardware RAID ==
 
== Parallel operation of onboard controller/hardware RAID ==
  
During the installation ESXi only „sees“ one type of storage, so either the onboard SATA controller or an additional RAID controller. If drives are connected to both then the hardware controller ist prioritized and the drives connected to the onboard controller are invisible. By manually loading the appropriate kernel module these drives can still be used.
+
During the installation ESXi only "sees" one type of storage, so either the onboard SATA controller or an additional RAID controller. If drives are connected to both then the hardware controller ist prioritized and the drives connected to the onboard controller are invisible. By manually loading the appropriate kernel module these drives can still be used.
  
 
  /sbin/vmkload_mod ahci
 
  /sbin/vmkload_mod ahci
  
So that this module is loaded automatically during start, the line must be added to /etc/rc.local and /sbin/auto-backup.sh.
+
To have this module loaded automatically during start, the line above must be added to /etc/rc.local and /sbin/auto-backup.sh.
  
 
[[Kategorie:Dedizierte Server]]
 
[[Kategorie:Dedizierte Server]]
 
[[Kategorie:Betriebssysteme]]
 
[[Kategorie:Betriebssysteme]]
 
[[Kategorie:Virtualisierung]]
 
[[Kategorie:Virtualisierung]]

Version vom 12. Februar 2013, 15:03 Uhr

Inhaltsverzeichnis

General information

Hardware

  • VMware vSphere Hypervisor 5.x (ESXi) uses a filesystem called vmfs5 (formerly vmfs3), which uses GPT and supports drive sizes of up to 64 TiB (formerly 2 TiB).
  • Software RAID is not supported by ESXi.
  • The free version of ESXi supports a maximum of 32GB RAM.

Network configuration

  • VMware vSphere Hypervisor is an "operating system" designed for pure virtualization and supports neither NAT nor routing. Therefore, only a true bridged setup can be used.
  • To use a subnet an additional IP needs to be setup as a router VM.

Installation

  • The installation AND configuration of ESXi with the installation CD takes about 20-30 minutes, even without any prior knowledge. (Installation guide)

License

  • After installation the system has a test license, which expires after 60 days.
  • For the long-term usage of the OS a separate (free) license is required. This can be requested by registering on the VMware website
  • The license can be entered via the vSphere Client, under the tab "Configuration", the section "Software" and then under the menu item "Licensed functions". After selecting this you can click on the "Edit" button to the right and then enter the license key.

Hetzner specific information

Pre-built hardware

  • The EQ and EX servers, aside from the EX10, are compatible with ESXi 5. However, the hardware is not certified by VMware. An installation on the EX10 is not possible, due to the 32GB RAM limitation of the free version and the unsupported onboard NIC.
  • Installing ESXi on the older DS or X servers is not possible.
  • When ordering a dedicated server, please state in the comments section at the end of the order form that you want ESXi on it. Hetzner Support will then provide you with a CD and a remote console (LARA), through which you can install ESXi. This installation costs 25 Euros. In some cases our support will pre-install ESXi.
  • When installing on a server with multiple identical drives, ESXi can potentially show the drives in a different order than the BIOS does. Should the screen be blank with only a blinking cursor after the installation is done and you restart, try booting from the other drive.

Network Configuration

  • For connectivity between multiple ESXi servers within the same subnet, host routes via gateway are necessary due to network security restrictions.
host A
esxcfg-route -a <IP Host B> 255.255.255.255 <Gateway IP>
host B
esxcfg-route -a <IP Host A> 255.255.255.255 <Gateway IP>

Single IP addresses

  • IP addresses are, by default, statically mapped to the MAC address of the host. It is possible however to get separate MAC addresses for the additional single IPs via Robot. These can then be configured for the virtual machines. To get these MAC addresses assigned, log in to Robot, choose "Server" from the menu on the left, select the desired server, and then click on the "IPs" tab. Here you can click on the icon next to the single IP address to get a MAC address.

Esxi-mac-setzen.png

Subnets

  • To use a subnet (IPv4 as well as IPv6) in ESXi, at least one additional single IP is required as a router VM, since ESXi itself cannot route. When ordering a subnet, please make sure to note that it is required for ESXi and should be routed on the additional single IP.

IMPORTANT Since IPv6 subnets are routed to link-local addresses (MAC-based), it is only possible to use IPv6 in a limited way (ie. in a single VM).

IPv4

The confirmation email of the subnets contains (for example) the following information:

Below you will find the IP subnet added to your server 192.168.13.156.

Subnet: 192.168.182.16 /28
Mask: 255.255.255.240
Broadcast: 192.168.182.31

Usable IP addresses:
192.168.182.17 to 192.168.182.30

You do NOT get a separate MAC for each IP from a subnet.

IPv6

After ordering the IPv6 subnet you should receive an email after a short while with the following details:

Below you will find the IPv6 subnet added to your server #12345.

Subnet: 2a01:4f8:61:20e1::1 /64
Gateway: fe80::1

Usable IP addresses:
2a01:4f8:61:20e1::2 to 2a01:4f8:61:20e1:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff

The IPv6 subnet is routed to the default link-local address (which is derived from the MAC address) of the main IP. Via Robot the routing of the IPv6 subnet can be switched to the link-local address of the virtual MAC (in other words, the additional single IP). This can be done in Robot, using the same symbol which is found next to additional single IPs to request virtual MAC addresses. The host system, so the ESXi itself, receives no IPv6 address. This is neither necessary nor possible because ESXi can not work with a fe80::1 gateway.


In order to use these IP addresses in virtual machines, a "router VM" supplemented by an additional NIC from the new subnet is necessary. The subnet itself requires a new vSwitch in ESXi to which all VMs in the subnet will be connected.

NOTE

The network card type for the router VM should not be VMXNET2 or VMXNET3, as otherwise the TCP performance can be very bad. As a workaround LRO in the VM can be disabled via 'disable_lro=1'. More information on this bug can be found here: http://www.vmware.com/support/vsphere4/doc/vsp_esxi41_vc41_rel_notes.html

After an upgrade to VMware ESXi 5 this issue may appear again. You can address this issue by disabling Large Receive Offload (LRO) on the ESXi host:

  • Log into the ESXi host with the vSphere Client.
  • Select the host -> Configuration -> Software:Advanced Settings.
  • Select Net and scroll down slightly more than half way.
  • Set the following parameters from 1 to 0:
Net.VmxnetSwLROSL
Net.Vmxnet3SwLRO
Net.Vmxnet3HwLRO
Net.Vmxnet2SwLRO
Net.Vmxnet2HwLRO

Reboot the ESXi host to activate these changes.

Preparations in the vSphere client

1. Create a vSwitch (in the example the name "subnetz" is used)

vSwitch part 1

vSwitch Part 2

vSwitch Part 3

vSwitch Part 4

2. Add a second NIC to the router VM. Connected network: subnetz (the previously created vSwitch)

Esxi-router-nic.png

3. The NIC of the virtual machine in the subnet. Connected network: subnetz

The networking overview should show the following:

Esxi-subnet.png

Configuration of the Router VM

  • Example of /etc/network/interfaces on the router VM
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
# WAN-NIC im VMnetwork
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
# for the IPv6 subnet the configuration is analog to other virtualisations
iface eth0 inet6 static
   address 2a01:4f8:61:20e1::2
   netmask 128
   gateway fe80::1
# LAN NIC in Subnet
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static
   address     192.168.182.30
   broadcast   192.168.182.31
   netmask     255.255.255.240
# The prefix/netmask can/must be changed according to the amount of network
# segments
iface eth1 inet6 static
   address    2a01:4f8:61:20e1::2
   netmask    64
  • Example of /etc/network/interfaces of a Linux VM in the subnet
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
   address 192.168.182.17
   netmask 255.255.255.240
   broadcast 192.168.182.31
   gateway 192.168.182.30

The router VM is now connected to both networks and can be used as a gateway for virtual machines in the subnet. Don't forget to activate IP forwarding in the kernel:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding

To make this persistent across reboots, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf

net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1

The virtual machines should now be accessible (via SSH for example) via their assigned IPs.

Installation guide

  • During the order choose the desired server (the EX10 is not supported by the free version). A RAID controller can be optionally added if desired (requires the Flexi-Pack) and is supported during the installation.
  • At the end of the order form there is a comments section where you can make a note that you want to install ESXi and that our technicians should set the server up with a LARA (remote console) and an installation CD of ESXi.
  • Once the server is ready you will receive an email from Hetzner with the details of the server as well as the access details for the LARA. In some cases our technicians will pre-install ESXi for you.
  • Login to the LARA console and finish the installation (approx. 5 minutes).

Afterwards, the following screen should be displayed:

ESXi installed

  • After a reboot login using the password that you entered during the installation. This is the root password for SSH as well as the password for the VMware vSphere Client (requires Windows). This can then be downloaded separately via a browser.

Esxi-vsphere.png

  • After successful installation you can order up to three additional single IP addresses via Robot. You can get a MAC address for your additional single IP through Robot under the "IPs" tab. You will see a small button next to the IP address. Clicking on that button will give the IP address a virtual MAC.
  • Configure the MAC addresses of the virtual servers with the corresponding IP addresses through vSphere. Once this is done even DHCP will work via the Hetzner network!

For additional information regarding ESXi and its usage, please refer to the official website

Manual installation of updates

The installation of updates in the free version can only be done via the console or via VMware Go. An update can be several hundred megabytes, which can take a long time with a standard DSL connection, which is why the following guide can help. This is done at your own risk. There is no warranty or guarantee for correctness!

Prequisite is SSH activated access and that the system is in maintenance mode. This can be activated via:

vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter

Updating VSphere 5.0 to 5.1

First of all the VMware-ESXi-5.1.0-799733-depot.zip update needs to be downloaded from the VMWare Updates Page, or, used at your own risk and without warranty or liability, from the Hetzner Download Page and saved on the ESXi Host.

Once all the VMs have been shut down and the system has entered the maintenance mode via "vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter", the update can be installed in two ways. The following command refreshes the system and removes all the packages that are not included in the update. This is equivalent to a new installation.

esxcli software profile install -d /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/VMware-ESXi-5.1.0-799733-depot.zip -p ESXi-5.1.0-799733-standard

Alternatively, only the packages containted in the update can be updated to their new versions, leaving all other packages intact.

esxcli software profile update -d /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/VMware-ESXi-5.1.0-799733-depot.zip -p ESXi-5.1.0-799733-standard

Finally, the system must be rebooted. When the VMs are turned on for the first time after the reboot, it is possible that a message appears noting that the VM was copied or moved. This happens because the UUIDs get changed during the update. You can safely select "VM was moved" in this situation. See also: VMware Help Page

Installation of Patches

After the patches have been transferred onto the system, they can be installed. It is important that the full path name is entered, eg.:

esxcli software vib install --depot="/vmfs/volumes/datastore1/patches/ESXi510-201210001.zip"
Installation Result
 Message: The update completed successfully, but the system needs to be rebooted for the changes to be effective.
 Reboot Required: true
 [...]

After a reboot the maintenance mode needs to be exited:

vim-cmd hostsvc/maintenance_mode_exit

Monitoring RAID controller

For the 3ware controller there exists both a CIM Provider as well as a CLI. The 64-bit CLI for Linux can be used from version 9.5.2 onwards.

Note: 3ware controllers are only supported by ESXi 5.0 via an external driver.

For Adaptec controllers the CIM Provider and the CLI (arcconf) must be manually installed. Required is an up-to-date version of the driver. An installation guide can be found on the Adaptec site (PDF)

Monitoring can be achieved through the installation of remote ARCCONF via a Windows/Linux system.

$ arcconf GETCONFIG 1 AD

Parallel operation of onboard controller/hardware RAID

During the installation ESXi only "sees" one type of storage, so either the onboard SATA controller or an additional RAID controller. If drives are connected to both then the hardware controller ist prioritized and the drives connected to the onboard controller are invisible. By manually loading the appropriate kernel module these drives can still be used.

/sbin/vmkload_mod ahci

To have this module loaded automatically during start, the line above must be added to /etc/rc.local and /sbin/auto-backup.sh.



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